Dr. Ștefan Odobleja, „Odobleja către tineri”

Pentru a crea, trebuie să simțim și să elaborăm la maximum. Pentru a crea e nevoie de intensitate: de spirit viguros, solid și precis. E nevoie de profunzime și de pătrundere, de inteligență divinatorie și inventivă, de sagacitate, spirit de sinteză, mare forță de intuiție. E nevoie, de altă parte, de multă finețe, spirit de discernământ și analiză, aptitudine pentru lucrări minuțioase“.

The roots of the cybernetic theory: “Ştefan Odobleja (1902–1978) was a Romanian scientist, one of the precursors of cybernetics. His major work, Psychologie consonantiste, first published in 1938 and 1939, in Paris, established many of the major themes of cybernetics regarding cybernetics and thinking systems ten years before the work of Norbert Wiener(1894-1964) was published, in 1948.” [12]

ICVL 2017, Ştefan Odobleja: A Scientific Visionary, precursor of Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence

Abstract. The article describes the contribution of the Romanian scientist Dr. Ştefan Odobleja (1902-1978) to the emergence, development and development of Cybernetics, whose ideas and concepts meant the emergence and development of computer science. The scientific activity of Stefan Odobleja, a military physician, makes his ideas, results and visions a precursor to Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence. His major work “Psychologie consonantiste”, first published in 1938 and 1939, in Paris, established many of the major themes of cybernetics regarding cybernetics and thinking systems ten years before the work of Norbert Wiener (1894-1964)-mathematician, published, in 1948. Odebleja’s contributions are all the more important if he is considered to be a physician, because they have created ideas and concepts complementary to some ideas introduced by N. Wiener. It can be appreciated that during 1920-1940 the ideas and studies on Cybernetics appeared, the science that laid the system concept (for man and the car), the structure of the systems (control and communication between the components of a system) and which led to the construction of the systems computing (computer system). Dr. Stefan Odobleja was recognized as a precursor of Cybernetics at the 4th International Cybernetics Congress, held in Amsterdam in August 1978. His Communication “Diversity and Unity in Cybernetics” was presented at the Congress by Dr. Stelian Bajureanu. After the presentation of Odobleja’s work, the participants chanted “40 Years of Cybernetics,” although they were celebrating “30 Years of Cybernetics” and mathematician Norbert Wiener.

Keywords: Cybernetics, System, Feedback, Model, Structure, Artificial Intelligence

SURSA: http://c3.icvl.eu/papers2017/icvl/documente/pdf/section1/section1_paper2.pdf

1 Cybernetics, Science of systems, Structures and Models

Motto:“The Art of Creation is a Global Art: The Art of Thinking” Ștefan Odobleja (1902-1978).

Thanks to the psycho-physical reversibility, we can materialize the act of creation. Undoubtedly, the inventive machine has not yet been created, but we can see its creation soon.” Stefan Odobleja, “Consonant Psychology”, Paris [8]

By trying to build machines that simulate and reproduce human brain activity, and because the most important computational models were made by simulating the activity of the nervous system, it can be said that Informatics was born as a chapter of the medical sciencesSolomon Marcus (1925-2016) [17].

Human thinking has invented the sciences. Science is a model and philosophy of thought. In 2014, Solomon Marcus describes “The 10 Human Needs” where the number 2 need is expressed as: “The need for refreshment. As we daily need to refresh our body through rest and movement and the use of water and soap, we need a refreshment of our mind, our senses and our psyches.”[17]

Man’s adaptation to nature and his survival in nature, depending on the area and time, forced man to organize not only survival, but rather to organize his experiences, learn from the obstacles with which he confronted, and especially to plan their future activities. All this is done through thought, as a manifestation and normal functioning of the brain. For these reasons, there are no two “identical” people with the same thoughts, primarily because there is no single criterion to compare two “thoughts”.

The automated models of the 1940s, the Turing machine of the 1930s and the electronic computer produced by John von Neumann and his team in 1948, looked at the nervous system. “In my book (Grammars and Finite Automats from 1964) there is a great chapter about the neural system, as it is modeled by S. C. Kleene’s finite automata and grammar. … Things continued through everything that followed in the disciplines cognitive and Artificial Intelligence, so we published the article “The Human Brain, Many Hypotheses – Few Clarifications,” in the “Academica” journal of the Romanian AcademyS. Marcus [18].

[1] BDM Soft (2015): CHC61 Competition, Odobleja precursor al Ciberneticii IEEE Computer Society’s Web Programming Competition Unsung Heroes,http://www.bdmsoft.com/ieeecontest/index1.php, accessed 2017
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[3] Ştefan Lăpădat (2003): “Ştefan Odobleja, întemeietorul ciberneticii teoretice generalizate”, Camera Deputaţilor, http://www.cdep.ro/pls/steno/steno.stenograma?ids=5543&idm=1,41&idl=1(Romanian)
[4] Colectiv (1979): „Precursori români ai ciberneticii“, Editura Academiei României (Romanian)
[5] Colectiv (1981): „Odobleja between Ampere and Wiener“, Editura Academiei Române
[6] John von Neumann (1945): EDVAC Report 1945, The John von Neumann Architecture of Computer Systems, http://www.wps.com/projects/EDVAC/, accsessed 2017
[7] Ștefan Odobleja (1935): „La Phonoscopie“ Ed. Gaston Doin & Cie, Paris
[8] Ștefan Odobleja (1938, 1939): “Psychologie consonantiste”, Paris: Publishing House Librairie Maloine
[9] Ștefan Odobleja (1983): Cybernetique generale. Psychologie Consonantiste, Sciences des Sciences, St. Odobleja – 1938 Editions Nagard, 875 p., Montreak-Paris-Lugoj-Roma-Pelham N.Y
[10] Ștefan Odobleja (1982): Consonantist Psychology (first published in French), Scientific and Encyclopaedic Publishing House (Romanian)
[11] Ștefan Odobleja (1978), Psihologia consonantista și cibernetică. Editura “Scrisul Românesc”, Craiova
[12] Ștefan Odobleja (1984, 2003): Introducerea în logica rezonanţei, Scrisul Românesc Craiova, 1984 (ed. I), 2003 (ed. II) (Romanian)
[13] Ștefan Odobleja Jr. (2013): “Tatăl meu era un vizionr, un om al viitorului” (Romanian), http://www.gds.ro/Actualitate/2012-07-14/Stefan+Odobleja+Jr.%3ATatal+meu+a+fost+un+vizionar%2C+un+om+al+viitorului/, accessed 2017
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[16] Dan G. Siposan, Octavian Florin Aliu (2014): “Adjusting the light in the limit conditions of consciousness by the means of ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) and of subordinated systems Part 1: Introduction and Aims”, Laser Therapy. 2014 Mar 27; 23(1): 31–40. accessed 2017
[17] Marcus Solomon (2014): “10 nevoi umane”, https://hyperliteratura.ro/10-nevoi-umane-solomon-marcus/, accessed 2017 (Romanian)
[18] Marcus Solomon (2015): “Cît de greu e să fii om!”, Convorbiri Literare, Uniunea Scriitorilor, http://convorbiri-literare.ro/?p=4911, accessed 2017 (Romanian)
[19] Alexandru Surdu (2013): “Ștefan Odobleja – logica rezonanţei”, http://www.art-emis.ro/stiinta/1568-stefan-odobleja-logica-rezonantei.html , accessed 2017 (Romanian)
[20] Wobbe Vegter (2009): CyberHeroes, http://wvegter.hivemind.net/abacus/CyberHeroes/Odobleja.htm, accessed 2017
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[25] Norbert Wiener (1966): Cibernetica sau știința comenzii și conducerii la ființe și mașini, Editura științifică, București (Romanian)

ICVL 2017 History of Informatics. From recursivity to the Turing universal machine and Horn clauses

SURSA: http://c3.icvl.eu/papers2017/icvl/documente/pdf/section1/section1_paper1.pdf

Marin Vlada1, Adrian Adăscăliţei2 (1)University of Bucharest, 14 Academiei Street, RO-010014, Romania, (2) ”Gh. Asachi“ Technical University, 67 “D. Mangeron” Blvd., Iaşi, Romania

Abstract The article describes the contribution of Romanian scientists in several fields of scientific research, on the fundamentals of calculus theory, the fundamentals of cybernetics, the algebra theory of automatic mechanisms, the mathematical logic applied to the construction and use of the first electronic computers, etc. In the 1960s, Romania was considered among the first countries in the world (after the USA, England, USSR, Germany, France, Japan, Austria, the Netherlands, Italy, Denmark) on research and efforts to build an electronic computer. The Romanian School of Mathematics developed under the influence of the Romanian mathematicians who supported their doctorates with prestigious mathematicians from France, Germany, and Italy. Mathematician Gabriel Sudan (1899-1977) published in 1927 (before W. Ackermann, 1928) the first recursive function that is not primitive recursive. Dr. Ştefan Odobleja (1902-1978) – a professional military doctor, is one of the forerunners of generalized theoretical cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence, the author of “Consonant Psychology,” published in Paris for the first time in 1938. In the 1950s, Grigore Moisil (1906-1973) developed a new theory of finite automata and proposed what is known today as “Łukasiewicz–Moisil algebras” and which Gr. Moisil applied to the logic of commutation circuits, which is an important contribution to the development of computer science.

Keywords: Computation, Recursive function, Turing machine, Computer System

1998 – Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy Boston, Massachusetts U.S.A., 10-15 August 1998http://www.bu.edu/wcp/index.html

Two Specialists in Cybernetics: Stefan Odobleja and Norbert Weiner. Common and Different Features.
Nicolae Jurcau, Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca
SURSA – http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Comp/CompJurc.htm

ABSTRACT: Among the Romanian forerunners of cybernetics (i.e., Daniel Danielopolu, Paul Postelnicu), Stefan Odobleja is, undoubtedly, the most important. European recognition of his contribution to the foundations of cybernetics took place twenty years ago when his paper, “Diversity and Unit in Cybernetics” (presented at the Fourth Congress of Cybernetics and Systems in Amsterdam, August, 1978), was received with great acclaim. His work has been used by other Romanian scientists and philosophers like Constantin Noica, Mihai Draganescu, Alexandru Surdu, Georghe M. Stefan, Constantin Balaceanu, Mihai Golu, Pantelimon Golu,Victor Sahleanu, etc. Meanwhile, another scientist-philosopher, Norbert Wiener, reached conclusions similar to Odobleja’s. It is interesting to note that two individuals who worked in and came from such diverse backgrounds and media, reached such similar conclusions within the interval of a decade.